Know the Etymology: 66
Place Name of the Day: Sunday, 02 July 2017

Aṭampaṉ, Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam, Cāḷampaṉ, Cāḷampaik-kuḷam, Muruṅkaṉ, Muruṅkaṉ-kuḷam, Intaṉ, Otiyaṉ-kāṭu-āṛu, Kuruntaṉ-kāṭu, Kovvaṅ-kuḷam/ Kovvaṉ-kuḷam

அடம்பன், அடம்பன்குளம், சாளம்பன், சாளம்பைக்குளம், முருங்கன், முருங்கன்குளம், இந்தன், ஒதியன்காடு-ஆறு, குருந்தன்காடு, கொவ்வங்குளம்/ கொவ்வன்குளம்
Aṭampaṉ, Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam, Cāḷampaṉ, Cāḷampaik-kuḷam, Muruṅkaṉ, Muruṅkaṉ-kuḷam, Intaṉ, Otiyaṉ-kāṭu-āṛu, Kuruntaṉ-kāṭu, Kovvaṅ-kuḷam/ Kovvaṉ-kuḷam

Cāḷampam > Cāḷampaṉ/ Cāḷampai+aṉ
Īntu/ Intu+aṉ

The place of Aṭampu creepers

The tank or pond in the locality of Aṭampu creepers

The place of Cāḷampai trees or the locality of a Cāḷampai tree

The tank or pond in the locality of Cāḷampai trees

The place of Murukku trees

The tank or pond in the locality of Murukku trees

The place of wild date palms

The stream of the forest of Oti trees

The forest of Kuruntu (wild lime) trees

The tank in the locality of Kovvai creepers

Aṉ1 attributive suffix, as in Aṭampu+aṉ > Aṭampaṉ; Viḷā+aṉ > Viḻāṉ; Karampu+aṉ > Karampaṉ; Kompu+aṉ > Kompaṉ in the meaning of dam, as in Mukkompaṉ (Tamil, early toponymic example for attributive suffix could be seen in a Tamil Brahmi inscription, ETE 84, 2003). See columns 95, 479
Aṉ2 masculine suffix, as in Kompu+aṉ > Kompaṉ, for tusker, male elephant, as in the place names, Kompaṉ-kutti, Kompaṉ-cāynta-kuḷam etc. (Tamil, Tolkāppiyam, 488). See column 116
Aṉ3 empty morpheme coming in conjunctions as in Iyaṅku+an+veli > Iyaṅkaṉveḷi (Tamil, Tolkāppiyam, 119); changed form of the empty morpheme Am, as in Iyaṇku+am+veḷi > Iyaṅkamveḷi > Iyaṅkaṉveḷi; change into Aṉ, instead of Aṅ, as in Kuruntu+am+kāṭu > Kuruntaṅkāṭu/ Kuruntaṉkāṭu; change seen in Sinhalicised examples as in Pūvaracaṅ-kuḷam > Pūvarasan-kulama. See columns 264 and 65,
Aṭampaṉ1 Aṭampu+aṉ; Aṭampu: a creeper, Ipomoea biloba (Tamil, DED 65); Aṭumpu: Ipomoea biloba, the creeper commonly found in the littoral tract (Tamil, DED 65, Kuṟuntokai, 243: 1); Aṭappaṉ-koṭi: = Aṭampu (Tamil, DED 65); Aṭampaṉ-koṭi: Ipomoea biloba, proverbial for its dense growth (Tamil proverb); Aṭar: (verb) to be close together, crowded (Tamil, DED 84); Aṭarppam: closeness, crowdedness (Tamil, DED 84)
Aṭampaṉ2 from Aṭampu certain trees, common Cadamba, "Kaṭampu"; Indian laburnum, "Koṉṟai"; Small Indian Oak (Tamil, MTL)
Cāḷampaṉ also Cāḷampai: a jungle tree commonly seen especially in Vaṉṉi and is known by the said terms (Eezham Tamil); Cālampam: a tree (Tamil, Kathiraiverpillai's Dictionary); the botanical term couldn't be ascertained, but probably the same as Hẹḷaṁba: a large timber tree, Stephegyne parviflora or Nauclea parviflora (Sinhala, Clough); Nīrk-kaṭampu: Stephegyne parviflora (Tamil, MTL);
Muruṅkaṉ 1. Murukku+aṉ; Murukku: a jungle tree, Butea frondosa (Tamil, DED 4981); also related trees such as, Muḷ-murukku, Kaliyāṇa-murukku etc., Erthrina indica, Berberis nepalensis (Tamil, MTL); 2. Muruṅkai: Indian horse- radish tree, Moringa pterygosperma (Tamil, DED 4982, Akanāṉūṟu, 1: 16); 3. Muruṅkaṉ: a kind of paddy, "Muruṅkaṉ-nellu" (Eezham Tamil, Kanthaiya, V. C.,). In toponymy Butea frondosa is more appropriate than the others. See column 117.
Intaṉ Intu+aṉ; Intu: from Īntu, Īñcu: dwarf wild date-palm, Phoenix farinifera; wild date-palm, Phoenix sylvestris; date-palm, Phoenix dactylifera (Tamil, DED 2617, Naṟṟiṇai, 2: 2); the short, wild variety is the one that is meant in Eezham Tamil references; Indi, Indi-gasa: date-palm, Phoenix zeylanica (Sinhala, Clough). See column 198 for Īntu, Inti and Īñcu
OtiyaṉOti+aṉ; Oti: also Uti: a jungle tree, the branches of which easily snap, Odina wodier (Tamil, DED 614, Tolkāppiyam, 7: 41; Nammāḻvār, 6: 6); Utir: (verb) to drop off, fall out, drop down, crumble (Tamil, DED 615)
Kuruntu wild lime, Atalantia, Atalantia racemosa, Atalantia missionis (Tamil, DED 1789, Kuṟuntokai, 148: 3-4); Kuruntam: = Kuruntu (Tamil, MTL, Aiṅkuṟunūṟu, 44: 9). See column 27 on Kuruńdu in Sinhala
Kovvaṉ also Kovvam(ṅ): Kovvai+am/aṉ; Kovvai: also kōvai: a common creeper of the hedges, Coccinia indica; a climbing shrub, Bryonia epigaea (Tamil, DED 2247); cognates in Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu (DED 2247); Kovvaṅ-kāy, Kovvaik-kāy: the fruit of Coccinia indica (Tamil, MTL, note the alternative conjunctions, one with empty morpheme and another without it; Kōvakkā: Coccinea indica or Cephalandra indica (Sinhala, Clough); "Enam osuvesesa" (Sinhala, Sorata); Coccinia indica, Bryonia epigaea and Cephalandra indica are synonyms (DED 2247)
Kuḷam pond, tank (Tamil). See column 18
Kāṭu forest, jungle (Tamil, DED 1438). See another column
Āṟu river, stream (Tamil, DED 5159). See another column

The Aṉ suffix coming in Eezham Tamil place names is used as an attributive suffix in some instances, used as a masculine suffix in some other instances and used as an empty morpheme in conjunctions. The last said is sometimes peculiar to Eezham Tamil, as it comes instead of Am/ Aṅ in standard Tamil.

Aṭampu/ Aṭampaṉ-koṭi is a creeper belonging to the littoral tract. But Aṭampaṉ-related Eezham Tamil place names are noticed in the interior areas also. There may be a probability for the term meaning certain trees also in the place names. See box on Aṭampaṉ 2.

Cāḷampaṉ and Cāḷampai seem to be terms peculiar to the island. Except Kathiraiverpillai's Tamil dictionary, others don't have any entries on the terms. Clough's Sinhala dictionary comes out with an entry for Hẹḷaṁba along with botanical identification, which we take as equivalent of Cāḷampaṉ. While the Cāḷampaṉ-related place names are found in the North and East, Hẹḷaṁba is noticed mostly in the Anuradhapura district. One each comes from Matale and Kalutara districts.

On Īntu/ Īñcu/ Intu/ Indi meaning wild date palm, see column 198 for details, usage examples and related place names.

* * *

Aṭampu/ Aṭumpu:

"அடம்பன் கொடியும் திரண்டால் மிடுக்கு"

"Aṭampaṉ koṭiyum tiraṇṭāl miṭukku" (A saying in Tamil)

Even the Aṭampu creeper gains strength if it amasses

"மான் அடி அன்ன கவட்டு இலை அடும்பின்" (குறுந்தொகை, 243: 1)

"Māṉ aṭi aṉṉa kavaṭṭu ilai aṭumpiṉ" (Kuṟuntokai, 243: 1)

The Aṭumpu creeper that leaf of which is bifurcated like the hoof of a deer

"வறள் அடும்பின் மலர் மலைந்தும்" (பட்டினப்பாலை, 65)

"Vaṟaḷ aṭumpiṉ malar malaintum" (Paṭṭiṉappālai, 65)

Wearing the garland of the flowers of Vaṟaḷ-aṭumpu (the variety of Aṭumpu that grows in sandy soil, MTL)

* * *

Murukku/ Muruṅkai:

"முருக்கு அரும்பு அன்ன வள் உகிர் வயப் பிணவு" (அகநானூறு, 362: 5)

"Murukku arumpu aṉṉa vaḷ ukir vayap piṇavu" (Akanāṉūṟu, 362: 5)

The mighty tigress, the blood stained sharp claw of which is like the bud of the Murukku flower [Here the reference is to the red flower of Butea frondosa]

"நார் இல் முருங்கை நவிரல் வான் பூ" (அகநானூறு, 1: 16)

"Nār il muruṅkai naviral vāṉ pū" (Akanāṉūṟu, 1: 16)

The fallen white flowers of the fiber-less Muruṅkai tree [in the following lines of this poem the fallen flowers are compared to the spray of sea waves, hence the reference may be to Moringa pterygosperma]

* * *

Uti/ Oti:

"உதி மரக் கிளவி" (தொல்காப்பியம், 7: 41)

"Uti marak kiḷavi" (Tolkāppiyam, 7: 41)

The word Uti meaning the tree

"ஒதியம் பணை போல் வீழ்வர்" (நம்மாழ்வார், 6: 6)

"Otiyam paṇai pōl vīḻvar" (Nammāḻvār, 6: 6)

They would fall like the branches of the Oti tree [the braches of this tree snap easily]

* * *

Kuruntu/ Kuruntam:

"கொன்றை குருந்தொடு அலம் வரும் பெருந் தண் காலை" (குறுந்தொகை, 148: 3-4)

"Koṉṟai kuruntoṭu alam varum perun taṇ kālai" (Kuṟuntokai, 148: 3-4)

A little before the beginning of rainy season, in which Koṉrai (Cassia fistula) and Kuruntu (wild lime) have come out with buds that are yet to blossom

"குருந்தம் கண்ணிக் கோவலர்" (ஐங்குறுநூறு, 44: 9)

"Kuruntam kaṇṇik kōvalar" (Aiṅkuṟunūṟu, 44: 9)

The cowherds wearing garlands or wreaths made of flowers or leaves of the Kuruntam tree

* * *


"கொவ்வைச் செவ்வாய்" (பெருங்கதை, 117: 35)

"Kovvaic cevvāy" (Peruṅkatai, 117: 35)

The red lips like the ripe fruit of Kovvai

* * *

Aṭampaṉ is a large village in Manthai West division of Mannar district.

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam is noticed as a pond name and place name near Karampakam in Thenmaradchi division of Jaffna district (Point Pedro OIS); Puthukkudiyiruppu West in Mullaiththeevu district (Iranaimadu OIS); Karuppaṭṭamuṟippu in Mullaiththeevu district (Iranaimadu OIS) and near Pan-kuḷam in Palliyagodella division of Polonnaruwa district (Kathiraveli OIS)

Cāḷampaṉ comes as place name in Karathuraippattu division of Mullaithheevu district; Manthai East division of Mullaiththeevu district; Manthai West division of Mannar district and in Nanaddan division of Mannar district.

Cāḷampaik-kuḷam is found as tank name and place name in Manthai West division of Mannar district and near Mutaliyār-kuḷam in Vavuniya district (Vavuniya OIS). Note that Cāḷampaṉ-kuḷam also comes in place names as the one in Oddusuddan division of Mullaiththeevu district.

Muruṅkaṉ is a major place in Nanaddan division of Mannar district.

Muruṅkaṉ-kuḷam is in Tuṇukkāy division of Mullaiththeevu district (Tunukkai OIS).

Intaṉ is a locality name noticed in Puḷiyaṅkūṭal in Kayts division of Jaffna district (V. Almanac, 2013-14, p. 90).

Otiyaṉ-kāṭu-āṟu is located near Paruttic-cēṉai, in Manmunai West division of Batticaloa district (Batticaloa OIS).

Kuruntaṉ-kāṭu is in Karaithuraippattu division of Mullaiththeevu district.

Kovvaṉ-kuḷam is a tank and place near Nānāṭṭāṉ in Nanaddan division of Mannar district (Murunkan OIS)

* * *

Some related place names:

Aṉ suffix:

Kompaṉ-kutti: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Cāḷampaṉ-kuḷam: near Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu (Iranaimadu OIS); near Kokkāvil (Ianaimadu OIS)

Vañciyaṉ-kuḷam: Nanaddan, Mannar

Periya-taṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar. Taṇakku: see column 56

Ciṉṉa-taṇakkaṉ-kuḷam: Musali, Mannar. Taṇakku: see column 56

Aṇiñciyaṉ-kuḷam: Thunukkai, Mullaiththeevu

Iyaṅkaṉ-veḷi: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mulaiththeevu

Iyaṅkaṉ-kuḷam: near Karuppaṭṭamuṟippu, Iranaimadu OIS; between Muṟikaṇṭik-kuḷam and Uyilaṅkuḷam, Iranaimadu OIS; near Pirappuveṭṭuvāṉ, Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu (Iranaimadu OIS); near Aiyamperumāḷ, Mullaiththeevu (Iranaimadu OIS); Ciṉṉatampaṉai, Vavuniya (Vavuniya OIS)

Māvilaṅkaṉ-veḷi: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Oluvaṉ-pilavu: Puthukkudiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu

Kuruntaṉ-kāṭu: Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kaṭṭuvaṉ: Valikamam North, Jaffna. See column 30

Kirāṉ: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa; Kinniya, Trincomalee. See column 99

Karaṭiyaṉ-kuḷam: near Māṅkuḷam, Iranaimadu OIS

Karaṭiyaṉāṟu: Karaṭiyaṉ-āṟu: Eravurpattu, Batticaloa. See column 12

Veḷḷaiyaṉ-cēṉai: or Vellaiyaṉ-cēṉai: Eravurpattu, Batticaloa. Vellai: jungle

Cuṟaṭṭaiyaṉ-kuṭā: Eravurppattu, Batticaloa. Cuṟaṭṭai: that which is dried up (Tamil, MTL

Tumpaṉ-kēṇi: Poratheevuppattu, Batticaloa

Vīraṉ-cōlai: Kuchchaveli, Trincomalee

Cuṅkaṉ-kuḻi: Kinniya, Trincomalee

Vellaṉ: Karaveṭṭi, Vadamaradchi, Jaffna (V. Almanac, 2013-14, p. 90); Tampālai, Valikamam East, Jaffna (V. Almanac, 2013-14, p. 98)

Koluviyaṉ-kalaṭṭi: Mayiliṭṭi North, Valikamam North, Jaffna, (V. Almanac. 2013-14, p. 97)

Karampaṉ: Kayts, Jaffna; Karaveṭṭi East, Jaffna. See column 95

Paṉiccaṉ-muṟippuk-kuḷam: South of Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu. Paṉiccai is the name of the tree

Kākkayaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar (Vavuniya OIS). Kākkai+aṉ(empty morpheme)+kuḷam; Kākkai: Nīrk-kākkai; note Sinhala place names like Kavuḍu-vẹva

Pēyaṉ-kuḷam: Madu, Mannar; Koralaippattu, Batticaloa. Pēy: devil

* * *


Ciṉṉa-aṭampaṉ: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Periya-aṭampaṉ: Vavuniya North, Vavuniya

Maḻavarāyar-kaṭṭai-aṭampaṉ: Madu, Mannar

Ceṭṭiyār-makaṉ-kaṭṭai-aṭampaṉ: Madu, Mannar

Malai-aṟuttāṉ-kaṭṭai-aṭampaṉ: Nanaddan, Mannar

Aṭampaṉ-tāḻvu: Manthai West, Mannar

Aṭampaṉ-tāḻvu-villu: Poonakari. Kilinochchi. This is a patch of marsh, Poonakari OIS

Aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Manthai West, Mannar

Vaṇṇār-aṭampaṉ: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Taccaṭampaṉ: Tacca+aṭampaṉ: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Taṭaiyaṭampaṉ: Taṭai-aṭampaṉ: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Nīraṭampaṉ: Nīr-aṭampaṉ: Poonakari, Kilinochchi

Mēlaṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Mēl-aṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Kollakuṟicci, Poonakari OIS. Mēl: western; note Mūlai-aṭampaṉ in the same locality

Mūlaiyaṭampaṉ: Mūlai-aṭampaṉ: Poonakari, Kilinochchi. Mūlai: corner; note Mēl-aṭampaṉ-kuḷam in the same locality; or probably Mūlai has another meaning, note Mūlai-aṭampaṉ-mōṭṭai-villu in another place

Mūlai-aṭampaṉ-mōṭṭai-villu: Mullai+aṭampaṉ+mōṭṭai+villu: Karaichchi, Kilinochchi

Nāyaṭampaṉ-villu: Nāy+aṭampaṉ+villu: Poonakari, Kilinochchi. Nāy-aṭampanvillu; Nāy: Nīr-nāy, otter; note Kokku-aṭampaṉkuḷam

Kokkṭampaṉ-kuḷam: Kokku+aṭampaṉ+kuḷam: near Puḷiyampokkaṇai, Elephant Pass OIS

Kokkaṭampaṉ-villu: Kokku+aṭampaṉ+villu: near Terumuṟikaṇṭi, Iranaimadu OIS

* * *

Aṭampaṉ: (Sinhalicised)

Aḍampanē: Nochchiyagama, Anuradhapura

Aḍampana-vẹva: on Padaviya-Pulmōṭṭai Road, northeast of Padaviya (Padaviya OIS)

* * *

Cāḷampaṉ/ Cāḷampai:

Ciṉṉac-cāḷampaṉ: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Periya-cāḷampaṉ: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu

Paṟaṅkic-cāḷampaṉ: Manthai West, Mannar

Cāḷampaik-kuḷam: Vavuniya, Vavuniya

Cāḷampayaṭik-kuḷam: Cāḷampai+aṭi+kuḷam: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Cāḷampaic-cēṉai: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Cāḷampaik-kēṇi: Navithanveli, Amparai

Cāḷampai: a locality in Mallākam, Valikamam, North, Jaffna, (Balasundaram, p. 126)

* * *

Hẹḷaṁba/ Hẹlaṁba:

Hẹḷaṁba: Agalawatta, Kalutara

Hẹḷaṁba-gaha-vatta: Naula, Matale

Hẹlaṁba-gas-vẹva: Medawachchiya, Anuradhapura

Hẹlaṁba-vẹva: Mahawilachchiya, Anuradhapura

Hẹḷaṁba-vẹva: Thabuttegama, Anuradhapura

Hẹḷaṁba-gas-vẹva: Nuwaragampalatha, Anuradhapura

* * *

Murukku/ Muruṅkai:

Murukkan-tīvu: Koralaippattu, Batticaloa

Murukku-veṭṭuvāṉ: Puthukkdiyiruppu, Mullaiththeevu Murukku-vaṭṭavana: Karuwalagaswewa, Puttama

Murukku-vaṭṭuvāṉ-kuḷam: near Marutam-pūval, Mullaiththeevu (Iranaimadu OIS) Muruṅkayaṭi-puṭṭi: Muruṅkai+aṭi+puṭṭi: Iluppaikkṭavai (Māntai OIS)

Irāca-muruṅkaiyaṭi: Irāca+muruṅkai+aṭi: Paṇṭatteruppu, Jaffna. A hoard of old coins was found at this place (Kathiresu, 1905, p. 51, cited by Balasundaram, p. 283). Irāca-muruṅkai: may be a species of tree, Kaṭampu according to SL Red List.

* * *


Otiyaṉ-kuṭā-āṟu: near Cillik-koṭi-āṟu, Batticaloa OIS. This place is the beginning of the stream. The same stream is marked as Othiyan-kāṭu-aṟu in the OIS

Otiya-malai: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu. Oti+am+malai > Otiyamalai; as in Puḷi+am+maram > Puḷiyamaram (Tolkāppiyam, 130)

Karai-otiya-malai: Oddusuddan, Mullaiththeevu. Karai: side Otiyā-vaḷavu: a locality in Polikaṇṭi, Vadamaradchi Northeast, Jaffna, (Balasundaram, p. 173)

Otiyā-vaḷavu: a locality in Polikaṇṭi, Vadamaradchi Northeast, Jaffna, (Balasundaram, p. 173)

* * *

Kuruntu/ Kuruntam:

Kuruntaṉ-kuḷam:  Manthai West, Mannar; Ampakamam, Mullaiththeevu (Iranaimadu OIS)

Kuruntaṉ-kaṇṭu: The part of wild lime trees; Karaithuraippattu, Mullaiththeevu

Kuruntu-malai: The hillock of wild lime trees; Thannimurippu, Mullaiththeevu district

Kuruntaṭi: Kuruntu+aṭi: near Viṭattaltīvu, (Mantai OIS)

Kuruńdan-kuḷama: from Kuruntaṉ-kuḷam: The tank of Kuruntu trees; Galgamuwa, Kurunegala; Mihinthale, Anuradhapura.

* * *


Kovvaik-kuḻi: a locality in Maṇṭai-tīvu, Kayts, Jaffna, (Balasundaram, p. 155). Kuḻi: pond, see column 7

* * *

Examples of Chaa'lampan tree and foliage photographed in Vanni. [Photo: TamilNet]

The Adampan creeper (Ipomoea pes caprae), photographed at Kalmadunakar, Vanni [Photo: TamilNet]
A dense stretch of Adampan [Courtesy:]
Adampan flowers: Close-up [Courtesy:]
The seeds of Adampan, seen inside the pod [Courtesy:]

* * *

Revised: Sunday, 02 July 2017, 18:30

First published: Friday, 07 September 2007, 01:00

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